Popular microcontrollers

Embedded systems are not just complex projects in electronic laboratories, they are present in everyday devices. Every mobile device, electric toy, or kitchen appliance has an electronic board that generally includes a programmable device: a microcontroller. This is a special microprocessor with peripheral devices and I / O ports. Depending on the volume of the device, the manufacturer can decide whether to develop an ASIC, a dedicated integrated circuit that performs all the functions for this device, or to make a standard board with components. discreet. In both cases some microcontroller is used, either as a soft core in ASIC or as a standard integrated circuit.

There are a myriad of options, from open source projects to multiple IP cores with significant royalties for each device. Despite this choice, few microcontroller families are popular for their flexibility, powerful development tools, or for historical reasons.


This is currently the most popular RISC kernel used in almost all mobile phones, handheld devices, and many other applications. It has a powerful, low-power set of instructions, offers easy integration, and there are many good development tools to make development and debugging easier. The ARM core is also used in many popular microcontroller families from Atmel, Luminary Micro (now Texas Instruments), NXP, and many other manufacturers. These microcontrollers are very popular with embedded engineers and are used in a variety of applications from the automotive industry to hobby projects.


This is one of the most popular microcontroller families from Atmel. It is also very popular with hobbyist engineers and is used in many projects, from simple LED drivers to complex communication devices. The RISC architecture offers fast execution and low power consumption. The development tools are available for free, which is a huge bonus for electronics enthusiasts. AVR is a direct competitor to Microchip’s PIC. Some prefer AVR, others like AVR. There is no clear winner. Both families work well. It is up to the developer / programmer what they like or prefer.


This is a leading family of microcontrollers from Microchip. PICs are available in very small packages with just a few pins and also as powerful 32-bit microcontrollers with many peripheral modules and I / O pins. They are very popular with hobbyist engineers – in hobbyist projects you will find AVR or PIC.


This is a very old 8-bit microcontroller architecture that has managed to survive for over 30 years. Many excellent compilers, many code samples, and simple development have contributed to the popularity of this family. This core is still used in many modern microcontrollers from Silabs, NXP, Atmel, and many other microcontroller manufacturers. The 8051 is most likely the most widely used kernel in embedded applications. Of course, many new designs will likely use ARM or some other advanced architecture, but due to the popularity of the 8051 family in the past and the availability of development tools, it is still used in many applications.


High-performing AdSense keywords exposed

When it comes to AdSense, you always have to remember to check the correct one keywords and niche to maximize your profits.

If you are dealing with evil keywords, then you will earn much less with your AdSense check. The number of clicks you get from your effort and traffic will not differ much, what really makes a difference are keywords they really pay well.

Below, we explore some of these keywords and explain why they are so valuable and why you should give the keywords listed below a try.

High performing AdSense keyword list in 2012

donate car to California charity ($ 130.25)

donate car for tax credit ($ 126.65)

donate cars in ma ($ 125.58)

donate your Sacramento car ($ 118.20)

how to donate a car in California ($ 111.21)

donate your car for kids ($ 106.01)

Colorado car insurance quotes ($ 100.93)

Nunavut Culture ($ 99.52)

Dayton Freight Lines ($ 99.39)

Hard Drive Data Recovery Services ($ 98.59)

donate a car in Maryland ($ 98.51)

engine replacements ($ 98.43)

Cheap domain registration hosting ($ 98.39)

Maryland car donation ($ 98.20)

donate cars Illinois ($ 98.13)

Florida criminal defense attorneys ($ 98.07)

Best Criminal Lawyer in Arizona ($ 97.93)

Utah car insurance quotes ($ 97.92)

life insurance co Lincoln ($ 97.07)

Holland Michigan College ($ 95.74)

Online Auto Insurance Quotes ($ 95.73)

online collections ($ 95.65)

Paperport promo code ($ 95.13)

online classes ($ 95.06)

World Trade Center footage ($ 95.02)

massage school Dallas Texas ($ 94.90)

free psychic ($ 94.61)

donate old cars to charity ($ 94.55)

low line of credit credit cards ($ 94.49)

Dallas Mesothelioma Lawyers ($ 94.33)

MN car insurance quotes ($ 94.29)

donate your car for money ($ 94.01)

cheap car insurance in VA ($ 93.84)

met auto ($ 93.70)

Forensic Medicine Online Course ($ 93.51)

home phone internet package ($ 93.32)

used car donation to charities ($ 93.17)

PhD in Counseling Education ($ 92.99)

neuson ($ 92.89)

Pa auto insurance quotes ($ 92.88)

Royalty Free Stock Images ($ 92.76)

South Dakota Auto Insurance ($ 92.72)

bulk email service ($ 92.55)

webex costs ($ 92.38)

Budget Car Insurance for Ladies ($ 92.23)

cheap car insurance in virginia ($ 92.03)

register domains for free ($ 92.03)

best conference calls ($ 91.44)

futuristic architecture ($ 91.44)

mortgage advisor ($ 91.29)

This is by no means a comprehensive list of keywords, but it should help us better understand these keywords.

The highest paying keyword on the list now is “donate car to charity California ($ 130.25).”

However, this keyword is a localized keyword and is based on California. All localized keywords will mean one thing to AdSense advertisers, and that’s limited traffic. Therefore, to start a full AdSense theme site for a keyword that is targeting only one area, it could be a risk. You won’t know if it’s paying off or not.

If it’s worth it, then you will find that it is a golden keyword that every click of your site visitor will earn you $ 130.25. That’s a lot of money. If your site can rank high in search engines and get around 100 visits a day with just a 10% click, you will earn more than $ 1,000.

It is very lucrative, yes, but in reality, you will have to work very hard to get a high value keyword like this to rank high in the search engines. Not only that, you will find it quite difficult to get enough traffic from California alone. Therefore, you will need a very strong traffic strategy for this type of keyword.

Scrolling down the list, you will find a keyword that says “Hard Drive Data Recovery Services ($ 98.59)”. This keyword is golden because it is not a localized keyword. You can be sure you can get a lot of traffic because the keyword can come from any state in the country and therefore the number of search engines for these keywords will surely be very high.

And if you take a look at the price per click, $ 98.59 is not bad at all. There you should always look for these types of keywords in your campaign. Keep in mind that the competition on these keywords will surely be very high and that you will have to work harder to make it worth your while. The thing is, once it pays off, you will definitely be able to make a great deal of money, and all your efforts will pay off.

If you take a quick look at the list above, you will find that many of these keywords are localized words and therefore make the game that much harder to win. A good strategy is to choose multiple keywords and try to rank high for all terms, but this would take a lot of work and this strategy is usually used by larger affiliates who have a workforce to do all the work for they.

There are many more of these high-performing keywords and they can vary from year to year. So a good tip for newcomer AdSense marketers is to keep an eye out for high-performing keywords and do your best to focus on one or two of the keywords first. When you can define just one of these keywords and start earning, you will be in for great pleasure.


Algiers, home of the famous El Djazair hotel

When Roman emperors ruled the world, loyal centurions of Roman legions who completed faithful service could expect as a retirement gift, if they were lucky, the equivalent of several hundred acres of farmland in the southern Mediterranean, primarily in territories that are now within the coast. Algeria, Tunisia or Morocco.

For the next two thousand years, these rich and fertile lands between the Atlas Mountains and the sea became wonderfully productive agricultural areas. Not too long ago, there was a time when Algerian vineyards produced more wine each year than the entire state of California. The protective shadow of the Atlas, like San Gabriels and other California coastal ranges, helped make the Algerian coastal belt a charming place to live and work.

The modern nation of Algeria is gigantic, almost four times the size of Texas. Today, since Sudan split into two nations in 2011, it is by far the largest country on the entire African continent. Algeria, the nation is named after its capital, Algiers, called “Alger la blanche” (the White City) because of its beautiful whitewashed buildings that gleam on the sunny slopes overlooking the sapphire blue bay of Algiers.

Visitors to Algeria often enter the country through Algiers, and it is surely worth extending your stay there for several days if you can. Among its many treasures, Algiers is home to the famous Hotel St. Georges, a magnificent Moorish palace built on a hill in 1889. It was here that Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery led much of his campaign in North Africa in World War II. , and it also hosted many important conferences between General Eisenhower and Prime Minister Churchill during the war.

After Algeria’s independence from France in 1962, the St. Georges was renamed Hotel El-Djazair, which has kept its name to this day. Many current guides list El-Djazair as one of the ten or twenty most famous hotels in the world. The French writer Henri de Montherlant is said to have said, after a long stay there: “Heaven still exists!” because he found it so nice and the food so delicious.

Overlooking the bay from atop a hill in the heart of a bustling city, it features fortress-like ramparts and a massive botanical garden, home to a number of rare Mediterranean trees. When visiting Algiers, this could be a good option for your first stay. You will be surprised how little it costs to stay in such a fabulous and luxurious hotel. In the last few months, you could stay at El-Djazair for $ 150 per night per person, double occupancy. A comparable luxury hotel would make you run many times longer than a jump and a jump across the Mediterranean Sea in Italy or France.

Modern Algiers is big, beautiful, and prosperous. It has great restaurants, great architecture, fabulous beaches, a historic Casbah, enviable museums. You especially want to savor the magnificent food of this coastal capital. I have too many happy memories of dining in Algeria to count, but if I had to pick a favorite restaurant, it would probably be El Cosaria, where my high expectations have always been met with fresh fish dishes prepared with that day’s catch brought in from beyond the breakwaters in the bay, and the many variations that are prepared there from lamb, a traditional Algerian staple. The cuisine is typically Algerian and very well done. Although considered one of the most expensive restaurants in town, dinner for two rarely costs more than $ 50 to $ 75. But you’ll want to do your own exploring!


Square Shade Sails Vs Triangular Shade Sails

Shade sails come in different shapes and sizes. The most popular shapes are triangle candles or square / rectangular candles. Furthermore, solar sails are also available in different colors. However, before planning a sail installation, many people wonder what the differences are between square and triangle shade sails. Either way will provide great coverage, however each also has its advantages and disadvantages.
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Square sails will provide the most coverage. They are available in a variety of sizes ranging from pre-made square candles to custom size square candles. However, larger square sails will usually require stronger attachment points. It is recommended to use steel poles as masts. Additionally, each post must be cemented into the ground. The general rule of thumb for how deep you should go into the ground will be 1/3 the height of your walk. So if your stride is going to be 9 feet, then you should walk about 3 feet on the ground. Most engineers usually recommend that you go at least 4 feet into the ground as a starting point. The other disadvantage of a large square candle is the possibility of it “sagging” in the middle. This can happen for a number of reasons. The lack of tension and the accumulation of water are the main reasons why a solar sail will be ruined in the middle. Also, square sails do not set as well as triangle shade sails.

Triangular shade sails also have many advantages and disadvantages. The biggest advantage they have over square candles is that they can be arranged in a variety of configurations that will please almost anyone. You can point one going in one direction and another in the other direction. You can also enjoy the heights or just play with whatever you want to make your arrangement. One of the big disadvantages is that triangular sails always have a gap between sails. This is an area where sunlight or water can easily pass through. The advantage is that they will not wrinkle as much as square candles when installed correctly. In addition, the gaps prevent so much water from accumulating and causing the solar sail to sink.

You first need to determine the main function of the candles before deciding which shape to buy. If you are primarily looking to get as much shade coverage as possible, a square or rectangular sail will be to your advantage. However, if you are looking for something that can transform the architecture of your surroundings, then a triangle sail might not be such a bad idea. Either way, shade sails provide a great way to cover just about anything quickly and inexpensively.


Bed and Breakfast – Delhi, India – Sham Nath Villa

Set amid lush gardens and shady trees, the Sham Nath residence has retained its old world charm and colonial architecture. It escapes the constant noise and pollution of the city center, but maintains easy access to the city’s most magnificent Mughal monuments such as the Red Fort, Jamma Masjid and the famous shopping center of historic Chandni Chowk with its picturesque bazaars and winding alleys.

Guests will enjoy all the comforts of a prestigious family residence, formerly the home of the late Mr. Sham Nath, after which the famous Heritage Road is named. He was mayor of Delhi and an eminent minister in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s cabinet.

Situated in the Civil Lines residential area of ​​North Delhi, with its impressive ‘Days of the Raj Bungalow’, our residence is a 10 minute walk from the famous University of Delhi. Sham Nath Villa has 5 elegantly furnished rooms. All rooms have balconies / terraces and modern bathrooms. We offer a complimentary continental or traditional Indian breakfast.

A great opportunity to live in India while enjoying a five-star quality environment, a perfect answer for those visitors who appreciate a touch of home.

Your private room has all the comforts you are used to in your own home, including Sky TV, air conditioning, and modern western-style en-suite bathrooms. After a tiring day of shopping or visiting Delhi’s many tourist attractions, why not freshen up and enjoy a home cooked meal prepared by our excellent family chef, also available as an optional welcome extra. Those looking for continental or international cuisine after a tiring day, need not walk further across the street to enjoy the famous restaurant of the famous Oberoi Maidens Hotel, Delhi’s premier heritage hotel.

A stay at Sham Nath Villa is truly a home away from home.


7 cities to visit in Spain

Beautiful sun-drenched beaches, splendid scenic beauty, delicious cuisines, and incredible nightlife. Spain has it all. Here are seven vacation destinations that are a must-see in Spain.

1. Costa Brava- The Costa Brava has always been a prominent place for vacations throughout the year. The coastline stretches from Port Bou to Blanes. The place has high cliffs, abundant vegetation, beautiful villages, sun-drenched beaches and hidden bays, which can only be accessed by boat. The best places include Chichi Begur, Cadaqués and Port Lligat. Port Lligat is famous for Salvador Dali and his wife Gala, as they once lived and worked. If you are interested in culture and archeology, then Ampurias or Empúries is a must.

2. Santiago de Compostela- This is the capital city of the Galicia region in the northwestern part of Spain. Also known for its traditional pilgrimage, the place is also known as the Camino de Santiago. The pilgrimage is important for many Christians since Santiago was buried. The city captivates the attention of people from all over the world. From its illustrious history or its rich culture, the city has a lot to offer. Praza do Obradoiro is the arrival point for pilgrims. The Cathedral of Santiago is also an important landmark, as it is located in the heart of the city.

3. Barcelona: the capital of Catalonia, this cosmopolitan city located on the Mediterranean coast has a historical background that blends effortlessly with modern urban life. Antoni Gaudí’s unfinished cathedral, La Sagrada Familia and Parc Güell, is a must-see. The city is well fed, both historically and culturally. Barcelona has several bars, excellent shops and also incredible clubs. Also check out the pleasant seaside resort of Sitges, a drive to the Montserrat National Park, which offers hiking, climbing and a monastery with a beautiful panoramic view.

4. Madrid-Located in the center of Spain, the city is more than two million years old, since the stone age. While most tourists visit Madrid for its quiet beaches, there is much more. The city offers some of the best museums in the world, restaurants, a vibrant nightlife, delicious delicacies and also a large number of pedestrian shops to offer the true essence of Spain. The historic center, Madrid los Austriacos, is a must-see. Today Madrid stands out for its art and culture, with more than seventy museums, including the famous Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía National Art Center and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum.

5. Valencia- Valencia is one of the largest cities in Spain. The city is located in the eastern part of the country in the Valencia region. The city is well built with an important cultural and entertainment complex, known as the “City of Arts and Sciences”. There are several science museums, aquariums, planetariums. Valencia hosts the Fallas Festival every March. It should be on every tourist’s wish list.

6. Seville: lively nightlife, refreshing atmosphere and beautiful tourist attraction, Seville tops the list of cities in Spain that you must visit. The city is the cultural and financial capital of Andalusia. A beautiful place with important historical landmarks, the most important being the great Cathedral of Seville. Seville Cathedral is a major tourist attraction, as it is believed to be the burial place of Christopher Columbus. The Real Alcázar is another exorbitant place with a luxurious garden.

7. Granada- Capital of the province of Granada, the city is located south of Seirra Nevada. Granada is the perfect mix of culture, tradition with an extravagant night life and a beautiful scenic beauty. Granada has a great architectural sight, with visitors coming from all over the world mainly to experience the Alhambra. The former Moorish rule in Europe, the Alhambra offers its visitors marvelous ornamental architecture, splendid scenic beauty along with a spectacular lush garden and stunning views of the city.

Spain is synonymous with modern experience perfectly interwoven with its great history and culture. Each city in Spain is an experience in itself. Happy Holidays!


Linux and Microsoft Dynamics GP: Deployment in a cross-platform environment

As more small and medium-sized organizations are implementing open platform operating systems and tools, such as Linux with various combinations and PHP / MySQL, we would like to share our experience in implementing Microsoft Great Plains in these mixed operating system environments. If you are using Oracle and Unix you may also consider the methodology however it deserves a separate article just for a brief overview, especially on the nuances of Java and EJB.

1. Overview of the MS Great Plains platform. The GP workstation is written in C Shell, called Great Plains Dexterity. It was designed in the early 1990s, when platform independence from DB and OS was the paradigm. However, when Microsoft acquired Great Plains Software seven years ago, Microsoft Dexterity was scaled down a bit and GP itself was open to the .Net platform and Microsoft Visual Studio C # and VB developers, especially through eConnect. Also, GP is only available on the Microsoft SQL Server DB platform. With that said, Microsoft Great Plains version 10.0 and 9.0 should be considered committed to Microsoft technologies: SQL Server, .Net, Windows, MS Office: Sharepoint, Excel, etc.

2. Cross-platform SQL queries. If you are doing it from the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 or 2000 side, the build you normally use is Linked Server, where you must first test the ODBC connection to Linux World. If you are on Oracle a similar build will allow you to connect MS SQL Server

3. Web services. eConnect allows you to open GP objects for non-Microsoft developers through XML web services; you can use the eConnect interface directly or wrap it in a custom web service interface

4. eConnect Tour. The core of eConnect is a set of encrypted MS SQL Server stored procedures, allowing you to manipulate GP master records and work transactions: SOP Entry, POP Receipts, Customers, Suppliers, to name a few. eConnect has GP architecture restrictions, one of the typical FAQ is why can’t we publish GP batches to eConnect. Well, this is the restriction, but you can break it by using the Albaspectrum publishing server. eConnect was initially dedicated to e-commerce software developers, to enable GP ERP platform as backoffice accounting for e-commerce front-end

5. Integration technology. Here again eConnect enters the picture. GP Integration Manager, which is a fairly traditional Great Plains integration tool, was recently partially redesigned in eConnect and therefore IM performance increased substantially. IM can read comma and tab delimited text files as well as ODBC compliant queries. When scheduling the integration, be sure to select the eConnect target connector as your preference, rather than implementing the regular target connector (old-fashioned connectors use the GP workstation as an OLE server to validate Great Plains business logic directly on the GP screens, which obviously slows down performance)


The history of computers

The first computers

The history of the computer dates back much longer than the 1900s, in fact, computers have been around for more than 5000 years.

In ancient times, a “computer” (or “computor”) was a person who performed numerical calculations under the direction of a mathematician.

Some of the best known devices used are the Abacus or Antikythera mechanism.

Around 1725 Basile Bouchon used perforated paper on a loom to establish the pattern to be reproduced on cloth. This ensured that the pattern was always the same and that there were hardly any human errors.

Later, in 1801, Joseph Jacquard (1752-1834) used the idea of ​​punch cards to automate more devices with great success.

The first computers?

From Charles Babbage. (1792-1871), was ahead of his time and, using the idea of ​​punch cards, developed the first computing devices to be used for scientific purposes. He invented the Charles Babbage differential engine, which started in 1823 but never finished. Later he began work on the analytical engine, it was designed in 1842.

Babbage was also credited with inventing computational concepts like conditional branches, iterative loops, and index variables.

Ada Lovelace (1815-1852), was Babbage’s colleague and founder of scientific informatics.

Many people improved on Babbage’s inventions, George Scheutz along with his son, Edvard Scheutz, started working on a smaller version and by 1853 they had built a machine that could process 15-digit numbers and calculate fourth-order differences.

One of the first notable (and successful) commercial uses of computers was the United States Census Bureau, which used punch card kits designed by Herman Hollerith to tabulate data from the 1890 census.

To compensate for the cyclical nature of the Census Bureau’s demand for its machines, Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896), which was one of three companies that merged to form IBM in 1911.

Later, Claude Shannon (1916-2001) first suggested the use of digital electronics in computers and in 1937 and J.V. Atanasoff built the first electronic computer that could solve 29 simultaneous equations with 29 unknowns. But this device was not programmable

During those difficult times, computers evolved at a rapid pace. But due to restrictions, many projects remained secret until much later and a notable example is the British military “Colossus” developed in 1943 by Alan Turing and his team.

In the late 1940s, the US Army commissioned John V. Mauchly to develop a device for calculating ballistics during World War II. It turned out that the machine was not ready until 1945, but the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, or ENIAC, turned out to be a turning point in the history of computing.

ENIAC proved to be a very efficient machine but not very easy to operate. Any change would require reprogramming of the device at some point. Engineers were well aware of this obvious problem and developed a “stored program architecture.”

John von Neumann, (ENIAC consultant), Mauchly and their team developed EDVAC, this new project used a stored program.

Later, Eckert and Mauchly developed what was arguably the first commercially successful computer, the UNIVAC.

Software technology during this period was very primitive. The first programs were written in machine code. In the 1950s, programmers used a symbolic notation, known as assembly language, and then manually translated the symbolic notation into machine code. Later programs known as assemblers performed the translation task.

The age of transistors, the end of the inventor.

The late 1950s saw the end of valve-actuated computers. Transistor-based computers were used because they were smaller, cheaper, faster, and much more reliable.

Corporations, rather than inventors, were now producing the new computers.

Some of the best known are:

  • TRADIC at Bell Laboratories in 1954,
  • TX-0 at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory
  • IBM 704 and its successors, the 709 and 7094. The latter introduced I / O processors for better performance between I / O devices and main memory.
  • The first dinner computers, the Livermore Atomic Research Computer (LARC) and the IBM 7030 (also known as Stretch)
  • The Texas Instrument Advanced Scientific Computer (TI-ASC)

Now the foundation of computers was in place, with transistors, computers were faster and with the architecture of the stored program, the computer could be used for almost anything.

Soon new high-level programs arrived, FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL (1958) and COBOL (1959), Cambridge and the University of London cooperated in the development of CPL (Combined Programming Language, 1963). Martin Richards of Cambridge developed a subset of CPL called BCPL (Basic Computer Programming Language, 1967).

In 1969, the CDC 7600 was released, it could perform 10 million floating point operations per second (10 Mflops).

The years of the network.

Starting in 1985, the race began to put as many transistors as possible in a computer. Each of them could do a simple operation. But apart from being faster and being able to perform more operations, the computer has not evolved much.

The concept of parallel processing has been used more widely since the 1990s.

In the area of ​​computer networks, both wide area network (WAN) and local area network (LAN) technology developed at a rapid pace

Get a more detailed history of the computer [].


Professional groups, a bridge between education and career planning

Since the 1960s, the career pool resources have been used as career exploration and planning tools in schools, learning communities, and organizations across the country. Career Clusters is a system that combines educational and career planning.

Step 1: Identify the areas of interest of the career group

Career groups are groups of similar occupations and industries. When teachers, counselors, and parents work with teens, college students, and adults, the first step is to complete the career cluster assessment. The assessment identifies the highest career areas. Career assessments show teen, college student, and adult rankings from one of the following 16 areas or interest groups:

1. Agriculture, food and natural resources

2. Architecture and construction

3. Arts, A / V technology and communication

4. Business, management and administration

5. Education and training

6. Finance

7. Government and public administration

8. Health Sciences

9. Hospitality and tourism

10. Human services

11. Information technology

12. Law, public safety and protection

13. Manufacturing

14. Marketing, sales and service

15. Science, technology, engineering and mathematics

16. Transportation, distribution and logistics

Step 2: Exploring Career Groups and Related Careers

After identifying the highest career groups, teens, college students, and adults explore different careers and create educational plans. Career pool tools used in education and career planning include:

  • LISA: a comprehensive database of career groups
  • Models
  • Brochures
  • Roads
  • High School Curriculum
  • Areas of interest and skills
  • Crosswalks

After completing a career cluster assessment, teens, college students, and adults search for high school websites, career models, brochures, pathways, and plans. One of the most unique comprehensive career cluster resources is the Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA), an Internet program. LISA allows you to explore career clusters, careers, skills, training requirements, and more. There are 3 steps in the LISA program:

STEP 1: Click here to select a career group

STEP 2: Click here to select a race group

STEP 3: Explore the occupations within this career group

In Step 1, when you choose a career group, you will see a description of the group. When you select a race group in Step 2, you see different races. Finally, in Step 3, you will see a lot of information:

  • Job descriptions
  • Educational and training requirements
  • Crosswalks, for example ONET, DOT, GOE and other codes
  • Abilities
  • Knowledge
  • Abilities
  • Chores
  • Labor values
  • Labor market information

Although LISA is an amazing program, in the classroom or in the workshop, it needs printed materials. When using printed materials, the career model is the best place to start. The models provide excellent overviews that list group definitions, career examples, trajectories, knowledge, and skills. Visual models show race groups, group subgroups, and related races. Models are a great way to present racing groups.

For presentations, workshops, and group discussions, the career group brochures provide additional information. Adults and teens read about the different careers available in each career group. The brochures are used by teachers, counselors, and parents to solidify potential career or educational decisions for adults and teens. The brochures cover topics such as:

  • Definition of race groups
  • Careers
  • Career paths
  • Job prospects
  • Abilities
  • Credentials

Teachers, counselors, and parents use career pathways to obtain more detailed information. Career paths are subgroups or areas of concentration within career groups. Each track contains groups of races. Career groups have similar academic skills, technical skills, educational requirements, and training requirements. Career paths are curricula that describe required high school courses, postsecondary courses, and related careers. Career paths are essential tools that teachers, counselors, parents, and other adults use to give advice on educational planning.

Several websites feature high school curricula. These curricula show required, elective, and suggested courses for each grade level. School plans also match career clusters with related majors, career paths, and post-secondary options. Teachers, counselors, and parents find these school plans to be guides in selecting the right high school courses for potential careers. Beyond high school, the Utah System of Higher Education has created a College Pathway Guide. Parents, teachers, and counselors can use the guide to match college majors with certificate and degree programs.

Additional Resources for Counselors and Teachers

To plan the curriculum and educational programs, there are detailed knowledge and skills charts and crosswalks. Knowledge and skills add to the information listed in the career group templates. For each area of ​​knowledge and skill, there are performance elements and measurement criteria. Crosswalks show the relationships between race groups and other race patterns:

Career groups create a bridge between education and career planning. Different types of professional group resources are available: videos, websites, brochures, brochures, activity sheets, and workbooks. Teachers, counselors, and parents utilize the career group resources to successfully complete educational and career planning.


American Careers Career Paths, Career Communications, 6701 W. 64th St., Overland, KS 66202, 800-669-7795

Career Click, Illinois Department of Workforce Safety, 33 South State Street, Chicago, IL 60603, (312) 793-5700

CIP Code Index by Career Group, CTE Division for Adults and Higher Education, Office of Career and Technical Education, 333 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17126, (717) 772-0814

Group and Career Videos, Career One Stop, US Department of Labor, Frances Perkins Building, 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210, 866-4-USA-DOL

College Major Guide Utah System for Higher Education, Board of Regents Building, The Gateway, 60 South 400 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1284, (801) 321-7100

Find Careers (Videos), iSeek Solutions, Minnesota State Colleges & Universities, Wells Fargo Place, 30 7th St. E., Suite 350, St. Paul, MN 55101-7804

High School Curricula, New Hampshire Department of Education, 101 Pleasant Street

Concord, NH 03301-3860, (603) 271-3494

Introduction to Professional Groups, Professional Education, Glencoe / McGraw-Hill, P.O. Box 543

Blacklick, OH 43004-0544,

Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA), customized Internet version of OSCAR, a product of the Texas Workforce Commission / Career Development Resources, TWC / CDR, Austin, TX 78753

Maryland Career Clusters, Maryland State Department of Education 200 West Baltimore Street Baltimore, MD 21201,

Rhodes Island Professional Groups, Rhode Island Professional Resource Network, 1511 Pontiac Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920, 401-462-8790

School to Career Groups, State of Connecticut, Department of Labor, Job Board, 645 South Main Street, Middletown, CT 06457, (860)754-5000

State Professional Groups Initiative (SCCI), 1500 W. Seventh Avenue, Stillwater, OK 74074

Career plans, career clusters, knowledge and skills charts

Cluster Structures VTECS, VTECS, 1866 Southern Lane, Decatur, GA, 30033,404-679-4501 ext 543

What are professional groups? Career Prospects System, New Mexico Career Resource Network, OFFICE OF CAREER TECHNICAL AND LABOR EDUCATION (CTWEB), Education Building, 300 Don Gaspar, Santa Fe, NM 87501, (505) 827-6512


Deepening the topography and exploration of restored memories of slavery at Farmington House and others

Last year marked the bicentennial of the abolition of the slave trade in the United States. The 1807 statute that effected it is entitled “An Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves at Any Port or Place Within the Jurisdiction of the United States, etc.”

The Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 (while the Civil War was still going on 145 years ago stated that it applied only to:

Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascension, Assumption, Terre Bonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the city of New Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia (except for the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkeley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Anne and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and what excepted parts are left for the time being precisely as if this proclamation had not been issued.

Lincoln excluded areas under union control to avoid pushing the border states to join the confederation. The civil war that was fought between the southern slave states and the northern confederate states then under the presidency of Abraham Lincoln was, in essence, over the rights to own slaves as property. Because the southern states were known for their extensive exploitation of slave labor to work their plantations. Kentucky was one of those states.

In June 2006, while we were part of the Summer Institute for the Study of Contemporary American Literature, we were directed on a tour of the restored remains of one such plantation and its slave house and other appendages. This plantation, along with his slave house, Farmington, reflects much of how it was then in the early 1800s.

As we walked onto the green grass carpeted lawn through the wooden paved walkway, several structures caught my eye, in addition to the 14-room federal-style house, which is said to have been modeled after an architectural plan drawn up by former US President Thomas Jefferson.

This farmhouse was started in 1815 and completed in 1816. Its construction involved large numbers of slaves, some of whom may have been skilled craftsmen such as blacksmiths, carpenters, sawyers, and masons.

Knowing that Abraham Lincoln, another former US President, once lived here, further increased my interest in exploring it.

Slave life here was like on other great Kentucky plantations, as our guide told us. John Speed, who eventually owned the property, emigrated there from Virginia in 1782, coming along with his parents, brothers, sisters, and family slaves. By the end of the 1790s he was running the salt factory at Mann’s Lick in southern Jefferson County and most of his workers were enslaved Africans who were hired by other slave owners.

By 1800, John Speed ​​had married Abby Lemaster and was living in Pond Creek in Jefferson County, Kentucky as a prosperous businessman, owner of sixteen slaves who worked in the mills and sawmills, as well as the salt flats of Mann’s Lick. Soon a widower and with two young daughters, Mary and Eliza, John Speed ​​married Lucy Gilmer Fry, twenty, of Mercer County in 1808. Lucy’s father, Joshua Fry, taught at Center College in Danville, Kentucky. . His maternal grandfather was Dr. Thomas Walker, one of Kentucky’s early explorers and also one of the young Thomas Jefferson’s guardians.

By 1809, Speed ​​had accumulated enough from the salt flats to allow him to purchase land in Beargrass Creek, including the present Farmington site, which he completed around 1809. By purchasing a large tract of land in Beargrass Creek in early 1810, John Speed ​​began building the fourteen-room federal-style brick house with Philadelphia master builders and skilled slave craftsmen. The house, with its octagonal side rooms, is similar in concept to several of Thomas Jefferson’s domestic designs. Farmington’s name is one that is shared with Charlottsville, Virginia, home of Lucy’s maternal aunt.

Later that year, they moved in and lived in cabins on this 550-acre property in Farmington.

In 1810, Speed ​​appears in the census reports as the owner of ten slaves, two of which were Phillis Thurston and his brother, Morrocco, who were given to John and Lucy Speed ​​by the Fry family who originally owned them. Then, with the establishment and development of the Farmington plantation, Speed’s slave ownership increased rapidly from 12 in 1811 to 39 in 1812 and then to 43 in 1813.

Speed ​​also oversaw the continuation of the road from Louisville to Bardstown, with labor supplied by his plantation hands and those of Samuel Brays. The completion of this path allowed troops to move around to be fed and clothed by the Speeds in the War of 1812. During the Civil War, Joshua and James Speed ​​played an important role in keeping Kentucky in the Union. Joshua traveled frequently to Washington and was instrumental in organizing the delivery of weapons to Union loyalists throughout the state. Because of this influence, Kentucky’s pro-Confederate Governor Beriah Magoffin and the legislature, also supporters of the Southern cause, were never able to tip the balance toward secession.

From the completion of the Farmington slave house in 1816 until Speed’s death in 1840, up to 64 enslaved Africans worked there. The plantation mainly grew hemp which was used to make rope and bags for the cotton trade. Replicas of these were seen as we toured the building. The farm also produced corn, hay, apples, pork, vegetables, wheat, tobacco, and dairy products. Slaves who worked in the fields were entrusted with the tasks of planting, harvesting, and shipping produce to markets. Those who worked on the gangway and those who drove the carts helped in this.

The Velocities, despite being strongly pro-Union, saw slavery as an accepted way of life as it was for everyone else in their community. Because slave labor was considered essential to the profitable operations of the plantation. Profits from slave labor in Farmington, as well as income from hiring them, helped pay for luxury items and children’s education and other family needs.

The responsibilities on the plantation were distributed between male and female slaves. Men primarily did the backbreaking work of harvesting hemp, which involved cutting, dragging, and splitting the hemp stalks into a hemp break. Each man was required to break 80-100 pounds a day, and those who exceeded this were paid for their extra work. Women worked outside the home, milking cows and driving them to pastures and carrying large loads of wood and water a considerable distance from the home. Those of the house cooked and cleaned. They built the fire, sewed clothes, churned butter, and did many other household chores. The Speed ​​women were said to be so dependent on slave labor that they would rely on a black slave to bring them water rather than get up and cross the room to get it.

According to James and Thomas Speed, great-nephew of John Speed ​​and author of Records and Memories of the Speed ​​Family, 1892, John Speed ​​provided a suitable environment for black slaves in Farmington, with each and his wife having a comfortable room, with a fire in it, as well as a bed and bedding, chairs, tables, and kitchen utensils. Slaves were also encouraged to cultivate plots of land for themselves, profits from which they used to improve their clothing. Several of them, including the favored Morocco and Rose, were entrusted with performing confidential special tasks, such as carrying and receiving letters and messages, selling goods in Louisville markets, and transporting children.

In reality, however, life in Farmington was far from rosy. The cases of resistance to slavery are many. In 1823, William C. Bullitt of the Oxmoor plantation placed an ad in the local newspaper for the capture of fugitive Ben Johnston, hired by John Speed. In 1826, Speed ​​announced the capture of two able men, Charles Harrison and Frazier, who had escaped. Below is another advertisement from the August 19, 1826 issue of the LOUISVILLE PUBLIC ADVERTISER which is just one example of those advertisements placed in Louisville newspapers for runaway slaves.

John Speed ​​died in 1840. After his death, Phillip Speed ​​is reported to have placed similar advertisements in 1851. Dinnie Thompson, Philis Thurston’s granddaughter, often recounted how she and her mother, Diana Thompson, escaped from Mary and Eliza Speed ​​only to be caught in a skiff as they were about to cross the Ohio River to freedom.

After Speed’s death, a 15-year-old slave, Bartlett, suspected of setting fire to the Farmington hemp factory, was sold by James Speed ​​to WH .. Pope & Co for $ 575.00 to have it taken away. of the state. After John Speed’s death, 57 of his slaves were divided between his wife and children. To ensure that each child received an equal share of the property, some slave families were separated. Peay, husband of Speed’s daughter Peachy, bought the house and some acres in 1846.

James Speed, known to be a strong emancipationist, is said to have frequently expressed anti-slavery sentiments during his interview in 1863 and on many public occasions. So, in the early 1850s, it was not surprising that he had ceased to be a slave owner. A series of emancipations followed, so that by 1865, the property had passed completely out of the hands of the family.

Before and during the war, some members of the Speed ​​family freed their slaves. According to court documents, on the same day in 1845, Lucy G. Speed, John’s widow, and her daughter Lucy F. Breckinridge emancipated three slaves: Rose, Sally, and their son Harrod. Other members of the family, such as sons J. Smith, Joshua, Phillip, and daughters Mary and Eliza, freed their slaves between 1863 and 1865.

This rich and interesting history is restored and spread to the floods of visitors to Farmington House through guidebooks, films, books, photo and relic exhibits and brochures recounting facts of history and the restoration and preservation of it all.

Farmington is said to have opened its doors to the public as a museum in 1957. But since then it has undergone several renovations and reinterpretations. Its current presentation is based on an extensive reinterpretation and restoration completed in 2002 to reflect the life of the Speed ​​family during the 1840s.

The home has been recently restored with its original paint colors, historic wallpapers and rugs lining the walls and floors, and is furnished with Kentucky furniture and other period antiques. It has been fully painted both inside and out, returning it to its original bright blue, yellow and pink colors. The interior joinery, fireplaces in each room, and brass work are original, as are many of the unusually large window panes that still remain in incredibly excellent condition. No home in Kentucky embodies federal architecture more gracefully than she does. The striking Jeffersonian features of its 14 perfectly proportioned rooms include two octagonal rooms embedded in their center, the narrow and boldly steep hidden staircase, and fan lights between the front and rear hallways. Exquisite reed doors, carved shelves and a marble plinth add a special elegance to your interior. Also striking is the elaborate early 19th century garden, with its stone spring and barn, as well as the kitchen, blacksmith shop, museum shop and a remodeled garage.

As we toured the entire house, we came to the basement room where Abraham Lincoln is said to have been housed throughout his stay here and we were astonished to see that we were shown many items that are living witnesses to his stay. We knew that we were also partners in that historic moment. Lincoln traveled from Illinois to visit Joshua Speed ​​and his family in Farmington in August 1841. They had developed a close friendship during the four years they met and shared accommodations. Through Joshua, Lincoln, the young lawyer at the time, began to expand his social and political circles. But at the time of his visit, a beleaguered Lincoln had broken up with the bright and attractive woman Mary Todd. He had even decided not to run for reelection. So when Joshua invited him in, Abe greeted him as a way to calm his despair.

Lincoln’s three weeks at Farmington would be truly restorative. Because it was a warm welcome and he became friends with the Speeds. There he took long walks with his friend Joshua, borrowing law books from Joshua’s brother James, who would later become Attorney General in Lincoln’s last cabinet. Mrs. Speed, who had just become widowed, gave Lincoln a Bible and advised him to read it regularly.

As Judge John Speed ​​had progressive views regarding the education of women and thus encouraged his daughters to study diligently, as opposed to the prevailing custom that placed a higher value on extensive education Of the men, Lincoln found these educated women of Speed ​​to be delightful company. In general, he found the Speeds an educated and cultured family, fond of music, literature and good conversation. They loved music so much that for several years they sponsored Anton Phillip Heinrich, a Bohemian composer. While living in Farmington, he created several of his famous works that appeared in his collection, The Dawning of Music in Kentucky. Later called the Beethoven of America, Heinrich is considered America’s first professional composer. It certainly influenced John Speed’s eldest daughter, Mary, who was an accomplished pianist and composer.

Farmington was important to Lincoln because it was probably the first slave plantation he ever visited. So when he wrote to Joshua’s half-sister Mary in September 1841 after his departure from Louisville, he expressed what was said to be his first known written observation of slavery. Because Lincoln was shocked to see chained slaves and slaves about to be resold. His impressions of the horror of slavery never left him, and over the years, slavery was perhaps the only subject that he resolutely opposed.

Farmington is just one of many buildings associated with slavery that have been preserved and many of which have been turned into museums and I would very much like to visit them. I would limit myself to those in Africa that it would be feasible for me to visit. First, let me acknowledge my progress on that plan by visiting the island of Goree in July 2007, just one year after my visit to Farmington.

This infamous island of Gorée shaped like the African continent, was the last sight of Africa seen by captured men and women led into a life of slavery in the Americas and the Caribbean. Through a cruise to the island, we visit the Slave Houses and the Forts used for the slave trade passing through the Gate of No Return and the museums to learn more about the island’s past through a lecture given by the curator Joseph N’Diaye. After that we enjoy lunch at a restaurant on the island and sail back to Dakar.

St. George’s Castle in Elmina, one of several former slave forts along the Atlantic coast of Ghana, is a popular destination and pilgrimage site for African Americans and visitors from around the world with its slave dungeons and cells as punishment. as well as a slave auction room that now houses a small museum that are traumatic sights to endure.

Cape Coast Castle and Museum is another. Cape Coast Castle also played a prominent role in the slave trade with its slave dungeons, the Palaver room, the tomb of an English governor and more. The castle was the seat of the British colonial administration for almost 200 years. The Museum now houses artifacts from across the region, including artifacts used during the slave trade. An informative video provides a good introduction to the business of slavery and shows how it was carried out.

The Gold Coast in Ghana is lined with old forts used by European powers during the slave trade, some of which have been converted into guesthouses and other forts such as Fort Amsterdam in Abanze have many original features, reflecting what it was like during the slave trade. .

Salaga, in northern Ghana, was the site of a major slave market whose grounds; slave wells that were used to wash slaves and fix them for a good price; and a huge cemetery where slaves who had died were buried have been preserved for visits and as relics.

The island of Gorée (Ile de Goree) is Senegal’s main destination for those interested in the history of the transatlantic slave trade.

The main attraction is the Maison des Esclaves (House of Slaves) built by the Dutch in 1776 as a detention point for slaves, which in turn has been turned into a museum where you will be guided through the dungeons where they were being held. the slaves and you will learn exactly how they were sold and shipped.

Porto-Novo, the capital of Benin, which was established as a major slave trading post by the Portuguese in the 17th century, has many ruined castles that can still be explored as I did with our own ruined fort in the Bunce Island in Sierra Leone long before the devastating war.

Ouidh (west of Coutonou) is where the slaves captured in Togo and Benin would spend their last night before embarking on their transatlantic journey. There is a History Museum (Musee d’Histoire d’Ouidah) that tells the story of the slave trade there.

The Route des Esclaves is a 4 km road lined with fetishes and statues where the slaves took their last walk to the beach and the slave ships. Important monuments have been erected in the last town on this road, which was the “point of no return.”

Albreda, an island that was an important slave post for the French, is now also a museum for slaves.

James Island was used to keep slaves for several weeks before they were shipped to other West African ports for sale. A dungeon where slaves were held for punishment still remains intact.

Lesser known but worth visiting slave trading sites in West Africa include the island of Gberefu and Badagry in Nigeria; Arochukwu, Nigeria; and the Atlantic coast of Guinea.